AP US: The Civil War (1861-1865)

Election of 1860

  • Democratic Party meets in Charleston, SC to choose their candidate for the Presidency
    • the leading candidate is Stephen Douglass, from Illinois
    • the Southerners present don't want to nominate a Northerner, so they demand that Douglas publicly promise not to limit the extension of slavery, and some demand that he fully support slavery
    • many delegates decide to leave, and a candidate is not yet chosen
  • 2 weeks following the first convention, they meet in Baltimore
    • the Democratic Party is fractured into three:
      • the North and South fail to agree and separate
      • in the North, the Democrats choose Stephen A. Douglas, who agrees to stay with the Freeport Doctrine
      • in the South, they rename to Southern Democrats and choose Breckinridge, Buchanan's Vice President
      • a third Democratic party, the Constitutional Union Party, also forms
        • former Whigs from upper South and border states
        • didn't share the convictions of the Southern Democrats
        • also include Northern Whigs who left the Republican Party
        • nominate John Bell from Tennessee
  • Republican Party
    • meet in Chicago, Illinois
    • put together a platform that will be favourable to people in both the North and the West
    • they propose:
      • Homestead Law - free land for settlers
      • high tariffs - assist manufacturers
      • a railroad to the Pacific with Federal money
    • they declare that the "normal condition" of a territory of the United States is that of freedom; while they won't limit slavery where it currently exists, they won't allow its expansion
    • most had believed Seward would be selected, but Lincoln was chosen instead
    • they wanted victory this year, and they were confident
    • there was a general opinion that Seward couldn't lead, and they were in Chicago, so Lincoln was selected
  • Two Campaigns
    • Breckinridge and Bell fight for the Southern vote
    • Lincoln and Douglas fight in the North
      • Douglas campaigns throughout the North, while Lincoln remains quietly in Springfield
      • it becomes evident that Douglas won't win, so towards the end, he drops his own campaign and instead begins to negotiate with the South to stop threats of secession
  • Results
    • Lincoln wins with 1.8 million votes, or about 40% (there won't be a majority with four candidates running)
    • while Northerners celebrate, Southerners plan to dissolve the Union

Crittenden Compromise

  • Senator Crittenden, from Kentucky, proposes amending the Constitution to pacify the South
  • his plan will prohibit slavery north of 36° 30', protecting slavery everywhere in the South
    • this was the line of the Missouri Compromise
    • Taney's Dred Scott Obiter Dictum had said that Congress has no right to regulate property, that is, slaves
    • this amendment would be the only way to overcome the Court's declaration of "unconstitutional"; adding it to the Constitution makes it constitutional
  • states entering the Union after the amendment could decide to be for or against slavery on their own, either north or south of the line
  • many believed that it could have appeased the South and slavery
  • Lincoln rejected it, saying that it would create an eternal conflict for all land south of the US, all the way to Tierra del Fuego
    • he isn't yet President, and so doesn't have a veto, but he can still influence his party
    • he felt that he needed to oppose it because his platform had been against the expansion of slavery - "Honest Abe" mentality
  • no other attempts at compromise will be made following this

Buchanan as "Lame Duck"

  • after Lincoln's election, Buchanan becomes "official" lame duck
  • the South feared that slavery would be restricted or outlawed, and began to discuss independence: their own banks, trade with Europe, etc.
  • the South Carolina legislature called for a special convention and unanimously voted to secede from the Union
    • in late December, they voted to take control of Federal buildings
    • by January 1861, most of the South had seceded
    • in February, Texas also seceded
    • Lincoln can do nothing - he's not President yet
  • in February 1861, leaders form the seceding states met in Montgomery, Alabama and established the Confederate States of America (CSA)
    • they selected Jefferson Davis, a former Senator who had attended West Point and had much military and administrative experience, as President
  • 4 March 1861: a small crowd gathered in Washington, D.C. to watch Lincoln be sworn in
    • Lincoln's inaugural address calls for the South to return to the Union and be treated as a friend; the friendship of the North and the South is strained, not broken
    • emphasised that he would not interfere with slavery where it already exists
    • reminds them that secession is illegal
    • he ends his speech by telling the secessionists that "in your hands, not mine" is the issue of civil war

The Attack on Fort Sumter (Charleston, South Carolina 12-13 April 1861)

  • Major Robert Anderson informed his seniors that they only had 4-6 weeks of supplies remaining, believing that Lincoln would order an evacuation
  • Lincoln decided to send unarmed boats to Charleston Harbour with supplies - and not reinforcements
  • neither Lincoln or Davis wanted to order the first strike, but gaining Sumter was key to the Southern strategy
  • Davis ordered the soldiers to evacuate, but they refused
  • Southern troops bombarded the troop for 34 hours before the Union troops surrendered
  • after this, war was inevitable
  • Lincoln called on the border states to help suppress the rebellion
    • Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas secede, and there are now 11 Confederate states
    • Lincoln shifts his attention from finding a peaceful end to mobilising the army, and calls for 75,000 militia, thinking it will be a short war
    • the South considers his arming to be a declaration of war
    • nearly 1/3 of the US officers left and joined the Confederacy, including "Stonewall" Jackson and Robert E. Lee (who had been offered command of all Union forces but left with his state, Virginia)
  • both sides are eager to fight
    • believed the war would only last a few months
    • Lincoln asked for volunteers with a 3-month agreement

Numbers

  • fewer than 20,000 in the Northern Army as war began, and many of these went South
  • Lincoln is able to call for 75,000 volunteers to start the war, whereas the South relies on militias to establish their army and navy
  • the North has more population, money, factories, crops, railroads
    • they have such an overwhelming advantage that the South is forced to fight a largely defensive war
    • however, a defensive war makes a longer war, and the South doesn't have the resources for an extended conflict
    • the South also hopes for British or French support

Map in 1861

US_Secession_map_1861.png
  • the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond to involve the border states
  • these border states (Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) will be crucial
    • proximity to capitals
    • navigable rivers
    • resources: horses, mules, factories, huge population
  • West Virginia was created from Virginia in 1863
    • Virginia had seceded, and so no longer had the protection of the Constitution that required a state's permission to separate it
    • West Virginia wanted to remain in the Union, so they were made a state

The Anaconda Plan

  • General Winfield Scott, of Mexican-American War fame, created the Anaconda Plan
  • the plan called for a gradual "strangling" of the South by:
    • blockading the coasts
    • "squeezing" the South by attacking from the West and the North
    • capturing the Mississippi River to split the South in half

Battle of Bull Run / First Manassas (21 July 1861)

  • Union troops, led by General McDowell, were eager for action, calling "On to Richmond!"
  • as they moved towards Bull Run, on the way to Richmond, it was believed that the battle would be an easy win for the North
  • however, the Union troops were inexperienced, whereas the Confederate troops had more fighting experience and were determined to protect their homeland
  • a Virginia brigade led by Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson counter-attacked, pushing the Union back
  • many Union soldiers simply ran from the battlefield
  • this became a boost for Southern morale, slightly altering their plan for a defensive war
    • they believed that they had better training and military superiority
    • this battle made the South over-confident, and led to a drop in enlistments
  • causes the Union to regroup and re-plan
    • make plans for a longer and more difficult war
    • Congress authorised the enlistment of 500,000 troops for three years of service
    • Lincoln appoints McClellan to lead the Army of the Potomac
  • General George McClellan
    • a well-liked, passionate leader with strong military credentials
    • he had sound strategies, on paper
    • he as overly cautious, and never wanted to commit his forces - he was always convinced that the enemy had more troops, or reinforcements on the way, or some other advantage
    • Lincoln eventually had to order McClellan to advance, in the Peninsular Campaign
    • ultimately, he wouldn't be good enough, and was fired

Battle of the Ironclads / Battle of Hampton Roads (8-9 March 1862)

  • history's first battle between armoured ships
  • the USS Monitor versus the CSS Virginia (rebuilt from the remains of the USS Merrimack)
  • the Merrimack sank one ship with its ram, one with its guns; it also ran some ships aground while they were fleeing the ironclad
  • this was considered the worst day in US Naval History until 7 December 1941 (Pearl Harbour)
  • the rest of the fleet was saved by the arrival of the Union's ironclad, the Monitor
  • the Monitor was smaller than the Merrimack, presenting a smaller target; it had only two eleven-inch guns in a revolving turret (a new innovation)
  • the battle was technically a draw, but the Merrimack returned to Virginia and never returned to battle; it was later destroyed by Confederate troops to prevent its capture by the advancing Union army
  • Southern engineers made several noteworthy naval accomplishments:
    • the H.L. Hunley sank a ship in Charleston, being the first battle submarine
    • ironclad rams were used to break the Union blockade
    • they built the first ironclad vessel, the Virginia / Merrimack
    • "torpedoes", or mines, sank more than 40 ships
  • this battle had a profound effect on naval history
    • the era of the wooden ship is gone
    • by war's end, the North had built another 60 ships of the Monitor class
    • the British and French had also been working on similar designs

Conscription

  • because of the length of the war and the lack of volunteers, both sides were forced to initiate conscription, the South about a year before the North
  • those who were conscripted in the North had the option to pay another to take their place; wealthy families paid poorer ones as substitutes
  • on both sides, but more so in the North, the people were strongly opposed to the draft
  • some of the worst draft riots in US History were those that occurred in New York during this period
  • in most wars, excitement over the war wears off quickly and the draft becomes necessary

Basic Causes of the Civil War

  • Slavery
    • the North came to morally oppose slavery, accepting the idea of war to end the curse of slavery
    • without slavery, issues might not have come to a sufficiently decisive point to cause the war
    • the North didn't offer any real solutions, they just opposed it
  • Different ways of life
    • different social and economic systems lead to misunderstandings
    • the North is an expanding commercial and manufacturing society based on free labour
    • the South is a stable agricultural society based on slave labour and the plantation system
    • the South views themselves with "Southern nationalism", feeling that a different society needs different institutions
  • Sectionalism
    • sectionalism began to be an issue about 1820, as shown by the Missouri Compromise
    • tariffs, the central bank, the railroads, states' rights, and other issues come into play
    • states' rights comes to be the primary problem
  • Declining Southern influence in government
    • the South saw a struggle with the North for control, which they were losing
    • with the North's growth, Congress became more unequal
    • they viewed Lincoln as a last straw
    • Pierce and Buchanan (before Lincoln) were both Northerners, but their less-strong ideas about slavery were acceptable to the South
    • the Republicans, and Lincoln, strongly opposed the extension of slavery
  • Weakness in leadership
    • with the deaths of Calhoun, Clay, Webster - the "great triumvirate" - no other leaders of compromisers appear
    • leaders nor inflame public opinion, mislead, etc.
    • some suggest that with good leaders, the Civil War could have been avoided

Characteristics of the Civil War

  • this was close to the last time that cavalry participated in a major war
  • the first "modern" war
    • railroads were used to move troops and supplies
    • the concept of trench warfare was introduced, but not used too widely
    • total war - civilians shared the burden of war with the military, especially in the war-torn South; the Union will adopt a scorched-earth policy, burning Southern land as they advanced
    • heavy casualties on both sides

Advantages

  • The North
    • a strong central government; it was also the one that was recognised by the world, making it easier to deal with foreign nations
    • more population, resources, money, and transportation (the railroads)
    • more food - the West produced an excess of grains, allowing them to eat and trade overseas
    • manufacturing - most mines and factories were in the North, although the South would develop some of their own as the war progressed
    • skilled labour
  • The South
    • they were fighting on their own land, so the terrain was more familiar and they were inspired by the thought of being on the defensive (feels more righteous; defending their own lands and families instead of invading others')
    • superior military leaders and soldiers, at least initially
      • the North was industrial, with less time spent hunting and handling weapons, whereas the South had a fighting, shooting tradition
      • the Northern army would develop as the war progressed, and become better disciplined and better trained
    • large slave population, which will continue to produce food and free males for military service
    • they hoped that the border states, France, and England would help
      • they lost four of the border states at the start of the war
      • no help materialised from France
      • some help came from England, but very little, as they were trying to preserve neutrality
      • the South had believed that England would be forced to help due to ties to the cotton industry; however, there had been so much trade that there was an excess of cotton in England for a while, and then Egypt developed as an alternative source for cotton

The War as a Major Event

  • establishes a permanent, complete stabilisation of the Union
  • slavery is abolished
  • the nation's interests shift
  • some wounds have yet to heal today; for example, there still are debates over the Confederate flag

Problems for Both Sides

  • both sides need money to fund the war
    • the North
      • increases tariffs
      • issues unbacked paper money, or "greenbacks"; their value will fluctuate based on the Union's success in the war
      • sells bonds; by 1863, Congress established a national banking system to help sell bonds, allowing any 5 persons with adequate funds to create a bank, provided that they invest one third of their capital in government bonds
        • highly successful in raising money for government
    • the South
      • had hoped that they could raise money through cotton sales, but this was limited by the Union blockade; also, Europe found other sources of cotton
      • sell bonds, levy taxes, issue paper money
      • bonds and paper declined rapidly in value
      • taxes were too difficult to collect, as no one had any money to pay
  • production of goods
    • the North could, but the South didn't have the necessary resources
      • the war stimulated Northern production
      • their ability to produce guns, uniforms, etc. helped the North to win the war
      • the Northern and Western farms produced enough food for home consumption and exports
    • the South could produce sufficient arms and ammunition, but everything else was in short supply, including serious shortages of food, clothing, and sanitary supplies
  • the draft / conscription
    • in the initial stages, the war was seen as glamorous and there were many volunteers
    • later, less men volunteered for service
    • both sides allowed men to pay for exemptions to the draft, either by simply paying a fee or by paying someone else to serve in his stead
    • it became a "poor man's war"
    • there were some of the most serious draft riots in US history, notably the 1863 riot in New York
  • broad wartime powers for government
    • the Confederate government forced citizens to contribute food, slaves, wagons, mules, etc.
    • the Northern government took over the railroad near war zones
    • both Lincoln and Davis were accused of being dictatorial
      • Davis was limited by the the strong states' rights ideals of the South
      • Lincoln was more able to exercise unlimited power
    • Lincoln was very powerful
      • however, he didn't take over the army
      • he did impinge on civil liberties
      • with only Congress in power, no decisions would be made; to many, in time of war, one leader is needed to make decisions
      • after Fort Sumter, he expanded the army; he is Commander in Chief, but according to the Constitution, Congress appropriates funds and decides size of army; he took action without Congress (they would later approve)
      • suspended the writ of habeas corpus in some districts, notably Maryland
      • authorised trial of citizens in military courts
      • placed limitations on speech and press
      • defended these actions by saying that swift and decisive action was needed during a national crisis
      • he argued that these moves were essential for the good of the nation
      • however, he made no attempts to interfere with free elections
      • it was not a concerted effort against Congress, it just happened
      • Congress also passed laws of their own, establishing a banking system, admitting West Virginia as a state, etc.
      • he argued that his actions were designed specifically to preserve the union, not to achieve his own policy
    • Jefferson Davis
      • some accused him of trying to become dictatorial
      • but the South wouldn't allow that, as states' rights were too strong
      • states ignored requests from the central government
      • the confederal form of government severely weakened the Confederates
  • foreign policy
    • the Northern government is internationally recognised as the government of the United States
    • they have diplomatic involvement with Britain, France, Russia, etc.
    • they fear British or French support for the South
    • both Britain and France recognise that the North is the legitimate government; if they support the South and lose, there will be troubles
    • Great Britain
      • the Confederates believe that Britain really needs Southern cotton, and expect all-out support from them
        • a rural nation would also be less threatening to Britain, and British aristocrats weren't fond of democracy
        • also, a split American continent would be beneficial for European powers
      • Britain will recognise and aid the South in the early years of the war while remaining "neutral"
      • Trent Affair (1861)
        • a Union warship stopped the HMS Trent in the Caribbean and removed two Confederate diplomats, Mason and Slidell
        • the Britain government demanded their release, even through they're Confederate diplomats on a British ship
        • Britain claims violation of neutral rights, rather ironic given their violation of their own neutrality; this also hearkens back to impressment leading up to the War of 1812
        • however, in 1861, the US wasn't sure where the border states, Britain, and France will fall; so, Lincoln order the release of the Confederate agents
      • later in the war, the British offences become very offensive
      • they begin to sell cruisers to the Confederates
      • the question becomes how far the US is willing to push the neutrality issue
      • after the war, the Alabama Claims ask for damages from Britain, and the US wins $15 million; Britain doesn't argue, as they know they were in the wrong, and there's not much the US can/wants to do about it
      • manufacturers
        • get cotton elsewhere than from the South
        • make a profit selling to both the North and the South
      • the British also get used to importing American wheat, and don't want to lose that resource
      • the British people liked Lincoln, and saw him as a champion for democracy; they were opposed to slavery, as Britain had banned it
      • these reasons add up to result in Britain's not getting involved
    • France
      • their strategy wasn't to support the South, but rather to use the conflict to expand their empire
      • they started in Mexico, and Napoleon III sent his army to invade
      • they were led by an Austrian Hapsburg, Maximilian
      • the US is to occupied with the war to do anything other than protest
      • once the war ended, the US made it clear there were ready to use force to enforce the Monroe Doctrine
      • Napoleon III pulled out of Mexico, but left Maximilian there; Maximilian was captured and executed by the Mexican forces
    • Russia
      • the Tzar remained friendly to the North during the war, not abusing his position in Alaska
      • in 1867, they offered to sell Alaska for $7 million, considering it to be a worthless icebox
      • Secretary of State Seward agreed to the purchase for several reasons:
        • gratitude for Russia's not supporting the South during the war
        • he had expansionist ideals
        • he thought that Alaska would be a strategic means of expanding US power in the Pacific
      • later oil discoveries would prove hugely profitable
  • Lincoln and Slavery
    • Lincoln's original intent was to save the Union, and not bring slavery into the war
    • he didn't want to end slavery, just stop its expansion
    • early in the war, any anti-slavery actions could have alienated the borders states and turned the course of the war
    • as the war continued, it became harder to recruit
    • Lincoln decided to free the slaves
      • he would give the war a moral purpose
      • more people in the North favoured the end of slavery than they had at the beginning of the war
      • making slavery an issue would take the British out of the picture, as the British people were strongly opposed to slavery
      • in late 1862, Lincoln announced his intention to emancipate the slaves
      • the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam opened the door for Lincoln to bring slavery into the war; to some, this is a critical turning point for the war
      • 1 Jan 1863: Emancipation Proclamation
        • didn't actually end slavery
        • all slaves in Confederate-held territory were now freed
        • those that supported the North (i.e. the border states) weren't freed until the 13th Amendment
        • this was a ploy to take the moral high ground for the North, giving them a new cause to continue to fight
        • his ploy was effective, as most of the North came to believe that they were fighting to remedy a social evil
        • not until the 1865 13th Amendment would slavery be banned throughout the US

Theatres of War

  • in the West, the Union will win all major campaigns
    • the Union forces are initially led by General U.S. Grant
      • they drove south along the Mississippi River, in battles at Shiloh, Fort Donelson, and Memphis
      • Farragut captured New Orleans in 1862
      • Vicksburg, Mississippi (1863) - Grant split the Confederate forces, leading to his eventual victory; this victory caused Grant's appointment as overall Union commander
    • General William T. Sherman succeeded Grant
      • moved across the South, destroying everything in his path
      • he believed that the scorched-earth policy would shorten the war and prevent further loss of life
      • the South viewed it as needless destruction
      • his drive did increase Confederate desertions, and most will agree that he did shorten the war, despite appalling damages
  • in the East, there is a battle between Washington and Richmond, as each side tries to invade the other's capital
    • the Union forces suffered many defeats
    • most argue that it was just their greater resources that allowed the eventual victory; the Union simply wore out the South over time
    • Lee and Stonewall Jackson largely out-manoeuvred and out-fought the larger Army of the Potomac (the Union)
    • there were two major battles where Lee wasn't able to exploit his victory
      • Antietam
        • first battle to take place on Northern soil
        • both sides had huge losses; Lee's were such that he wasn't able to press his attack
        • this was enough of a victory for Lincoln to announce the Emancipation Proclamation
      • Gettysburg
        • the "turning point" of the war
        • losses suffered never allowed the South to mount other offensives against the North
        • convinced foreign powers that the North would win the war, and that helping the South was hopeless
        • in conjunction with Vicksburg (the day after), this provided hope to boost the North
        • opened up the west and the north for a push south and east, as per the "Anaconda Plan"
        • the North saw an end in sight for the war
  • General Ulysses S. Grant
    • his tactic was to always move forward, no matter what; this was what Lincoln wanted, as opposed to McClellan's slow and careful attacks
    • he was never concerned about the losses - he had more men than Lee, and he was going to use that to his advantage
    • he was also compassionate, telling his troops, at victory, that it wasn't a cause for celebration, as they were fighting fellow Americans
    • he was also very trusting, almost naïve, a characteristic that will affect his Presidency
  • Wilderness Campaign (May-June 1864)
    • the last campaign of the war
    • led by Grant
    • fighting was costly to both sides
    • Lee was never able to replace the men and equipment that he lost
    • Grant entered Richmond, and moved south to meet Sherman moving north
  • Appomattox Courthouse
    • 9 April, 1865; Lee surrendered
    • this signalled the end of the Civil War
    • fighting would continue for about a month, as the remaining Confederate armies surrendered
    • over 600,000 Americans were dead; more than all other wars since, combined

Legislation

  • many pieces of legislation were passed without Southern representatives in Congress
  • 1861 - Morrill Tariff Act; raised tariffs
  • 1862 - Homestead Act; granted land for free to farmers who lived there for 5 years
  • 1862 - Legal Tender Act; allowed the use of paper money, not just coins, to fund the war
  • 1862 - Morrill Land Grant Act
  • 1862 - Emancipation Proclamation
  • 1863 - Pacific Railway Act
  • Virginia was split and West Virginia admitted to the Union
  • 1863 - National Bank Act

Election of 1864

  • Lincoln (Republican) ran against McClellan (Democrat) during the war
  • Lincoln's "dictatorial" status and the length of the war had lost him some popularity
  • Sherman's March to the Sea regained some support for Lincoln
  • the "Copperheads" (in reference to the snakes) were a peace movement against Lincoln
    • they opposed the war and called it a failure
    • they wanted an immediate end by negotiation
  • it was a close election: 55% to 45% of the popular vote; the electoral vote wasn't close, though
  • one of the Republicans' most effective arguments was that the nation shouldn't "change horses in midstream"
  • Lincoln won the election, and remained in power to end the war

Assassination of Lincoln

  • 14 April 1865, 5 days after Lee's surrender, the Cabinet met to discuss the fate of the rebels
    • Lincoln opposed any attempt to designate Confederate leaders as criminals
    • he believed that there had been enough deaths already; they shouldn't be hung for treason
  • that evening, he went to Ford's Theatre with this wife
    • his location was common knowledge
    • the police guard left his post long enough for John Wilkes Booth to enter and kill Lincoln
    • Booth jumped out of the booth and ran out of the theatre, yelling, in Latin, "Virginia is avenged!"
    • Jefferson Davis later acknowledged the death of Lincoln to be the worst thing that could have happened to the South, after losing the war
  • 3 July 1865, three men and a woman were hanged for complicity
  • Secretary of State Seward had also been attacked, but recovered
  • Vice President Johnson was never attacked
  • it will never be known whether Lincoln's plan for lenient reconstruction would have worked
  • Johnson became the President, but he didn't have the prestige nor the tact to quickly rebuild a unified nation
  • Lincoln's reputation, historically
    • he has become much more loved since the end of the Civil War and his assassination
      • hated by the Copperheads, the South, and even some in the North
    • he was hated during the war, but is now considered one of America's greatest leaders
    • as more information is found, his reputation is borne out by the "prism" of history
    • he was a dynamic, devoted wartime leader
    • lacked the executive experience, but that grew as the war progressed
    • he was patient, tactful, and firm
    • despite pressure from his own party and the Democrats, he did not waver - he insisted that the war be fought to the bitter end
    • over time, his personal qualities have been examined, and he has become loved by many
    • forbearance - he accepted abuse and criticism with good humour
    • never expressed hatred to the Confederates or to the slaveholders as people
    • believed that slavery was deeply, morally wrong
    • Second Inaugural Address (March 1865)
      • malice towards none
      • forgiveness for the South
      • care for all - there are widows and orphans on both sides
    • Gettysburg Address
      • noble ideals of democracy
      • "new nation conceived in liberty"
      • "all men … equal"
      • "government for the people, by the people"
      • resolve that the deaths of the battle would not be in vain
    • he was already working on putting the nation back together
      • charitable towards his enemies
      • generous terms of surrender
      • called for moderation, rather than hatred, from Congress and the nation
    • his personal kindness was indicated by letters of condolence for parents of dead soldiers
    • his assassination at the moment of victory and height of fame made him a martyr
    • the North mourned him as a national hero who had preserved the Union
    • the South recognises that Lincoln was the one person who might have cured the bitterness that would occur during the next 10 years
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